Merge with elegance

It’s perhaps the last time I asked this interview question last week. Write a function to return a sorted array containing all elements from two given int arrays. The input arrays are sorted but omission is intentional. Bonus points for:

  1. asking if input array is already sorted?
  2. identifying that it’s the merge step of merge-sort algorithm
  3. or naming the function merge

I have seen correct, clever, dumb, outrageous, uncomfortable and painful responses. For those who provide good answers, I ask them to identify Queue operations and think of an elegant solution instead of the fastest solution. Here is a stunningly elegant implementation of merge operation which treats input and output arrays as Queues.

#ignore mutability of a, b
#first is peek operation and shift is dequeue operation 
def merge(a, b)
  c = []
  c << (a.first < b.first ? a.shift : b.shift) until 
      a.empty? || b.empty? 
  c += a
  c += b

Java solution in 7 lines of code:

public static int[] merge(int[] a, int[] b) {
  Q cq = new Q(new int[a.length + b.length]);
  Q aq = new Q(a);
  Q bq = new Q(b);

  while(aq.notEmpty() && bq.notEmpty()) 
      cq.enqueue(aq.peek() < bq.peek() ? aq.dequeue() : bq.dequeue());
  while(aq.notEmpty()) cq.enqueue(aq.dequeue());
  while(bq.notEmpty()) cq.enqueue(bq.dequeue());
  return cq.elms;

//You will need a helper Queue class called Q to go with it. 
class Q {
    int current;
    int[] elms;

    Q(int[] elms) {
        this.elms = elms;

    boolean notEmpty() {
        return current = elms.length;

    int peek() {
        return elms[current];

    int dequeue() {
        return elms[current++];

    void enqueue(int elm) {
        elms[current++] = elm;

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